However, not all experts agree with this conclusion. Utah Geological Survey. Soc. The study, based on official reports, notes an average of about 75 major landslides occur annually in just central and western Nepal and this costs the country about $130,000 in damages to land and cattle alone. Am., v. 96, p. 952–967. Geol. Landslides are caused by disturbances in the natural stability of a slope.
Alexander, D. E., 1989, Urban landslides:Prog. Geol., v. 4, n. 4, p. 385–393. Sci.
Am., v. 86, p. 129–140. These examples illustrate parts of the continuum that extends from dominant natural to dominant anthropogenic causes.
"Earth Science." "Landslide Hazards." Environmental Geology and Water Sciences Highland, Lynn M., et al. Teacher's Ed.
The Nepalese government believes that indiscriminate mining and ill-planned road building are to blame for the widespread wastage of land resources, which forces rural communities to encroach into forests and further aggravates soil erosion. Econ. Soc. PubMed Google Scholar, Alexander, D. On the causes of landslides: Human activities, perception, and natural processes. April 1999. http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/pic13/pic13_5.html. Ginsborg, P., 1990, A history of contemporary Italy: Society and politics, 1943–1988: London, Penguin, 586, p. Hsü, K. J., 1975, Catastrophic debris streams (sturzstroms) generated by rockfalls: Bull.Geol.
Mudslides develop when water rapidly accumulates in the ground and results in a surge of water-saturated rock, earth, and debris.
Espec. "Types of Landslides." Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Alexander, D. E., 1982, Differences between “calanchi” and “biancane” badlands in Italy,in R. B. Bryan and A. Yair, eds., Badland geomorphology and piping: Norwich, U.K., Geobooks, p. 71–87. Kayser, B., 1964, Studi sui terreni e sull'erosione del suolo in Lucania: Matera, Italy, Fratelli Montemurro Editori, 145 p. King, R., 1971, Italian land reform: Critique, effects and evaluation:Tijdschr. Soc. Tokyo, v. 12, p. 1–33. Wise, D. U., R. Funiciello, M. Parotto, and F. Salvini, 1985, Topographic lineament swarms: Clues to their origin from domain analysis of Italy:Bull. The earth or rock might be weak or fracture d, or different layers may have different strengths and stiffness. volume 20, pages165–179(1992)Cite this article.
Delano Smith, C., 1979, Western Mediterranean Europe: An historical geography: London, Academic Press, 453 p. De Rosa, G., and A. Cestaro, eds., 1973, Territorio e società nella storia del Mezzogiorno. Kojan, E., and J. N. Hutchinson, 1978, Mayunmarca rockslide and debris flow, Peru,in B. Voight, ed., Rockslides and avalanches, Part I: New York, Elsevier, p. 315–361. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01706160, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in
Idrogeol., v. 15, p. 87–100. Generally classified as mass movements of rock, debris, and soil down a slope of land. "In U.S., Mudslides Common, But Usually Few Deaths." Varnes, D. J., 1978, Slope movement types and processes,in R. L. Schuster, and R. J. Krizek, eds., Landslides: Analysis and control: Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board, p. 11–33. Crozier, M. J., 1986, Landslides: causes, consequences and environment: London, Croom Helm, 252 p. Davidson, D. A., 1980, Erosion in Greece during the first and second millennia B.C. "Frequently Asked Questions." 2002. Georgia Teacher Wraparound Ed. "Dynamic Earth." Of all the world's landslides, 30 per cent occur in the Himalaya, according to a South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) study on the causes and consequences of natural disasters in the region and the protection and preservation of the environment. American Geosciences Institute. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. "30/7 Malin Landslide: A Case Study." Cello, G., I. Guerra, L. Tortorici, E. Turco, and R. Scarpa, 1982, Geometry of the neotectonic stress field in southern Italy: Geological and seismological evidence:J. Struct. Three examples of landsliding are examined. Department of Geology and Geography, University of Massachusetts, 01003, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA, You can also search for this author in Neuman, Scott. Landslide causes are listed in the following table, and include geological factors, morphological factors, physical factors and factors associated with human activity. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners who may combine it with other information that you’ve provided to them or that they’ve collected from your use of their services. "The Aitape 1998 Tsunami: Reconstructing the Event From Interviews and Field Mapping.". Sometimes, landslides are caused, or made worse, by a combination of the two factors. Clout, H., M. Blacksell, R. King, and D. Pinder, 1989, Western Europe: Geographical perspectives, 2nd ed. They can accompany heavy rains or follow droughts, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions.
INDISCRIMINATE tree felling, construction, mining and quarrying, combined with heavy rainfall, have increased the fragility of the Himalayan mountains, leading to an increase in the incidence of landslides in the region. There are two primary categories of causes of landslides: natural and human caused. Construction works, legal and illegal … Geol. Affini, v. 36, n. 4, p. 451–470. :Geology, v. 15, n. 3, p. 212–215. "Debris Flow Hazards in the United States." Numerous studies argue that natural processes play a far greater role in the Himalayan region in causing landslides than human-induced ones. Judson, S., 1963, Erosion and deposition of Italian stream valleys during historic time:Science, v. 140, p. 898–899. Plafker, G., and V. R. Eyzaguirre, 1978, Rock avalanche and wave at Chungar, Peru,in B. Voight, ed., Rockslides and avalanches, Part II: New York, Elsevier, p. 269–279. Conceptual equations are presented for the net benefits, total risk, and total vulnerability associated with hazard zone occupation.
Clapperton, C. M., 1983, The glaciation of the Andes:Quat. The team found that over 700 fatal landslides that occurred between 2004 and 2016 had a human fingerprint.
March 21, 2005. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2000/fs036-00/, Biek, Robert, Hacker, David, and Rowley, Peter. It is shown that, as they are polycausal phenomena, landslides require a more sophisticated approach to this form of analysis than that employed for most other forms of hazard. Causes may be considered to be factors that made the slope vulnerable to failure, that predispose the slope to becoming unstable. At Calciano, in southern Italy, deforestation has resulted in a mudflow disaster, although man-made factors are not the only causes at work.
Environ. Naples, Italy, Guida Editore, 951 p. Funiciello, R., M. Parotto, F. Salvini, E. Locardi, and D. U.
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