[51][52], In the 16th century, Europeans began to bring slaves from Africa. Desafíos del transporte ferroviario de carga en Colombia. [328] The construction of forts was common throughout the Caribbean and in some cities of the interior, because of the dangers that represented the English, French, and Dutch pirates and the hostile indigenous groups. [128][129] Colombia shows modest progress in the struggle to defend human rights, as expressed by HRW. Steep and articulated bays, inlets, capes, and promontories accentuate the shoreline on the Pacific side toward the Panama border and on the Caribbean side where the sea beats against the base of the Santa Marta Mountains. Architecture during the period of conquest and colonization is mainly derived of adapting European styles to local conditions, and Spanish influence, especially Andalusian and Extremaduran, can be easily seen. [174], Colombia was one of the 4 founding members of the Pacific Alliance, which is a political, economic and co-operative integration mechanism that promotes the free circulation of goods, services, capital and persons between the members, as well as a common stock exchange and joint embassies in several countries. [220], Recent economic growth has led to a considerable increase of new millionaires, including the new entrepreneurs, Colombians with a net worth exceeding US$1 billion. [137][138], The geography of Colombia is characterized by its six main natural regions that present their own unique characteristics, from the Andes mountain range region shared with Ecuador and Venezuela; the Pacific Coastal region shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean coastal region shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos (plains) shared with Venezuela; the Amazon Rainforest region shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador; to the insular area, comprising islands in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Colombian Constitution of 1991 (Title II – Concerning rights, guarantees, and duties – Chapter I – Concerning fundamental rights – Article 19). [301][302], The earliest examples of gold craftsmanship have been attributed to the Tumaco people[303] of the Pacific coast and date to around 325 BCE. Stockcero, Inc. Rodríguez-Arenas, F.M. And its weather is like living in an eternal fall all year long. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before finally adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886.[22]. Best estimates recorded 71 languages that are spoken in-country today – most of which belong to the Chibchan, Tucanoan, Bora–Witoto, Guajiboan, Arawakan, Cariban, Barbacoan, and Saliban language families. [263] There is a major migration trend of Venezuelans, due to the political and economic situation in Venezuela. However, in recent years growth has been impressive, reaching 6.9% in 2007, one of the highest rates of growth in Latin America. The oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Sebastián de Belalcázar, conqueror of Quito, traveled north and founded Cali, in 1536, and Popayán, in 1537;[38] from 1536 to 1539, German conquistador Nikolaus Federmann crossed the Llanos Orientales and went over the Cordillera Oriental in a search for El Dorado, the "city of gold". Carlos Correa, with his paradigmatic "Naturaleza muerta en silencio" (silent dead nature), combines geometrical abstraction and cubism. The specific number of spoken languages varies slightly since some authors consider as different languages what others consider to be varieties or dialects of the same language. [26] The Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. The changes generated by the new constitution are viewed as positive by Colombian society. Capital district: [270] The departments of La Guajira, Cauca, Nariño, Córdoba and Sucre have the largest indigenous populations.

[369][370], Theater was introduced in Colombia during the Spanish colonization in 1550 through zarzuela companies. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it and you agree with our privacy and data usage policy. Dificultades de política interna y exterior retrasaron siete años su ratificación", "El conflicto Colombo-Peruano – Apuntes acerca de su desarrollo e importancia histórica", "Colombia y los Estados Unidos en la Guerra de Corea", "El golpe de Rojas y el poder de los militares", "Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, 100 años, 1900–1975", "Frente Nacional: acuerdo bipartidista y alternación en el poder", "Contribution to an Understanding of the Armed Conflict in Colombia", "Armed conflict in Colombia: analyzing the economic, social, and institutional causes of violent opposition", "Tomas y ataques guerrilleros (1965–2013)", "Oblivion: a memoir by Hector Abad wins Wola-Duke human rights book award", "First-class citizens: Father de Nicoló and the street kids of Colombia", "20 grandes cambios que generó la Constitución de 1991", "Desmovilización, principal arma contra las guerrillas", "Former Colombian President Alvaro Uribe Speaks at Yale SOM", "Oscar Morales and One Million Voices Against FARC", "Colombia referendum: Voters reject Farc peace deal", "Plebiscito 2 octubre 2016 – Boletín Nacional No. [366][367][368], The music of the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina is usually accompanied by a mandolin, a tub-bass, a jawbone, a guitar and maracas. [395][396] Based on the country’s total area and population size, Colombia has a population density of 116 people per square mile of land. [86][87] The so-called "Department of Cundinamarca" adopted the name "New Granada", which it kept until 1858 when it became the "Confederación Granadina" (Granadine Confederation).

These are Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta and Buenaventura. [108] The conflict escalated in the 1990s,[109] mainly in remote rural areas.  Antioquia At the Great Colombian Massif of the Cordillera Central, near the San Agustín Archeological Park, the Cordillera Oriental (“Eastern Range”) branches off in a more decidedly northeasterly direction. Investigación & Desarrollo, 20(1) 142–167", "Características de los migrantes de Venezuela a Colombia", "Colombia Offers Citizenship to 24,000 Children of Venezuelan Refugees", "Descripción cuantitativa de la pluralización religiosa en Colombia", "Religion in Latin America, Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region", "Vida, pasión y muerte del romanticismo en Colombia", "Romanticismo – Diccionario electrónico de la literatura colombiana", "Costumbrismo – Diccionario electrónico de la literatura colombiana", "Tumaco: People and Gold on the Pacific Coast", "El espíritu barroco en el arte colonial", "Joaquín Gutiérrez, el "pintor de los virreyes": Expresión del estilo rococó en la Nueva Granada", "Puntos de partida en el arte contemporáneo de Colombia", "Clásicos, experimentales y radicales 1950–1980", "Pietro Tenerani y la escultura en Colombia en el siglo XIX", "Latin America's largest antique negative archive in Medellín", "Apuntes para una cronología de la fotografía en Antioquía", "Especial Entre Viñetas la historieta colombiana en prensa", "Museo Virtual de la Historieta Colombiana – Cronología", "National Archeological Park of Tierradentro", "Fundaciones coloniales y republicanas en Colombia: normas, trazado y ritos fundacionales", "Colombianos que se destacan: Música que vibra por todo el mundo", "Marimba music, traditional chants and dances from the Colombia South Pacific region", "Ritmos – Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina", "Six surprising facts about Bogota's Ibero-American Theater Festival", "Main performing arts festivals – Theatre History", "Ocho festivales de cine imperdibles en Colombia", "La Corporación Festival Internacional de Cine de Cartagena", "Un papel a toda prueba. Colombia is the most populous nation of Spanish-speaking South America.

The war ended with a peace deal brokered by the League of Nations. [232][233][234], Some leading Colombian scientists are Joseph M. Tohme, researcher recognized for his work on the genetic diversity of food, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo who is known for his groundbreaking work on synthetic vaccines for malaria, Francisco Lopera who discovered the "Paisa Mutation" or a type of early-onset Alzheimer's,[235] Rodolfo Llinás known for his study of the intrinsic neurons properties and the theory of a syndrome that had changed the way of understanding the functioning of the brain, Jairo Quiroga Puello recognized for his studies on the characterization of synthetic substances which can be used to fight fungus, tumors, tuberculosis and even some viruses and Ángela Restrepo who established accurate diagnoses and treatments to combat the effects of a disease caused by the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, among other scientists. The eastern two-thirds of the country, lying beyond the Andes, differs from cordilleran Colombia in practically all aspects of physical and human geography. Universidad Católica del Táchira.  Bolívar Going south, we find Central America, where Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama are.

Colombia is bordered by the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, Venezuela and Brazil to the east, Peru and Ecuador to the south, and Panama to the west. Part of the Ring of Fire, a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions,[142] in the interior of Colombia the Andes are the prevailing geographical feature. The viceroyalty was restored under the command of Juan Sámano, whose regime punished those who participated in the patriotic movements, ignoring the political nuances of the juntas. [28], Alonso de Ojeda (who had sailed with Columbus) reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Wondering where is Colombia located on the map is finding out a country that is crossed by the Andes, and sheltered by the Amazonian Jungle. 69.93% is obtained from the hydroelectric generation.  Tolima [134] Colombia's Foreign Ministry said that all efforts to resolve Venezuela's crisis should be peaceful. [345][350][351] Marimba music, traditional chants and dances from the Colombia South Pacific region are on UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. [88][92] Internal divisions remained between the bipartisan political forces, occasionally igniting very bloody civil wars, the most significant being the Thousand Days' War (1899–1902). Although this new system has widened population coverage by the social and health security system from 21% (pre-1993) to 96% in 2012,[401] health disparities persist. [126] In 2016, President Santos was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. [376][377][378], Some important national circulation newspapers are El Tiempo and El Espectador. 6.68% is of African ancestry. [176][177][178][179][180] Colombia is a global partner of NATO. It is more than twice the size of France and includes the San Andrés y Providencia archipelago, located off the Nicaraguan coast in the Caribbean, some 400 miles (650 km) northwest of the Colombian mainland. / Colombia Map – Colombia is an amazing country in the north-west of South America, characterized by a hot and humid climate. Farther northeast beyond the deep canyons cut by the Chicamocha River and its tributaries, the Cordillera Oriental culminates in the towering Mount Cocuy (Sierra Nevada del Cocuy), which rises to 18,022 feet (5,493 metres).

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